Mycotoxin Testing



Mycotoxins are substances produced by molds that contaminate various agricultural commodities either before harvest or under post-harvest conditions. According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), international trade in agricultural commodities such as wheat, rice, barley, corn, sorghum, soybeans, groundnuts, and oilseeds amounts to hundreds of millions of tons each year run a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. In fact, there is considerable opportunity for mold and mycotoxin contamination of agricultural commodities to take place throughout the food system – from production to distribution and transport – and this may lead to economic losses. Apart from the obvious losses of food and feed, there are losses caused by lower productivity and high costs of control measures throughout all levels of the supply chain. Do not let mycotoxin contamination hamper your business operations and expose your consumers to health hazards. We could help you optimize your quality control systems with our premium mycotoxin testing kits. Let us know about your mycotoxin testing concerns by giving us a call or e-mail. A member of our technical team will attend to you right away. According to FAO, the following are the most common mycotoxins found in the food supply chain

Aflatoxin is one of the most potent natural carcinogens known to man and has been linked to a wide variety of human health problems. The US FDA has established maximum allowable levels of total aflatoxin in food commodities at 20 parts per billion. The maximum level for milk products is even lower at 0. 5 parts per billion. Primarily Aspergillus species fungi produce aflatoxin.

Effects: 

  • Aflatoxin B1, and naturally occurring mixtures of aflatoxins,are identified as potent human carcinogens
  • Cause liver damage or cancer, decrease milk and egg production, immune suppression and interference with reproductive efficiency

 

source: http://www.mold-help.org/content/view/457/

Ochratoxin is primarily produced by species of Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. It is commonly found in barley, wheat, corn, and other commodities. Ochratoxin may be present in conjunction with aflatoxin. The European Union (EU) has regulations for human food from 0.5 to 10 ppb depending on the commodity. 

Effects:

  • Kidney damage/ nephropathy
  • Reduction in growth and feed efficiency
  • Increased mortality

source: http://www.mold-help.org/content/view/457/

T-2 Toxin is a tricothecene produced by species of Fusarium sp. and is one of the more deadly toxins, its hydrolized form (HT-2) is proven to have the same effects. 

Effects:

  • If ingested in sufficient quantity, T-2/HT-2 toxins can severely damage the entire gastro-intestinal tract and cause rapid death due to internal hemorrhage. Visible lesions can be observed in the oral cavity of avian species
  • T-2/HT-2 toxins have been implicated in the human diseases alimentary toxic aleukia and pulmonary hemosiderosis.
  • Damage caused by T-2/HT-2 toxins is often permanent.

 

source: http://www.mold-help.org/content/view/457/

Fumonisin is a toxin associated with species of Fusarium sp. Fumonisin is commonly found in corn and corn-based products, as well as rice. US FDA and the European Union (EU) established an acceptable limit of 2 ppm for dry milled corn products.

Effects:

  • Linked to esophageal cancer in humans
  • Associated with pulmonary edema in pigs
  • Causes equine leukoencephalomalacia (liquefaction of the brain)

 

source: http://www.mold-help.org/content/view/457/

Zearalenone is also a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp. molds. Zearalenone toxin is similar in chemical structure to the female sex hormone estrogen and targets the reproductive organs. The US FDA has regulatory levels for Zearalenone set at less than 500 ppb while the European Union (EU) established an acceptable range of 20 to 200 ppb depending on the type of commodity. 

Effects:

  • When ingested, this causes estrogenic effects to pigs
  • Swollen vulvas, vaginal or rectal prolapses in pre-pubertal gilts
  • Enlarged uterus, swollen or twisted uterus, and shrunken ovaries
  • In boars, testes atrophy, enlarged mammary glands, and decreased fertility

 

source: http://www.mold-help.org/content/view/457/

Deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as Vomitoxin, is a tricothecene produced by several species of Fusariumsp. US FDA recommends that the maximum level for human consumption is at 1 ppm. For the European Union (EU), the regulatory level is at 200 to 1250 ppb. 

Effects:

  • DON has been associated with outbreaks of acute gastrointestinal illness in humans.
  • Reduction in feed consumption and weight gain are inversely proportional to concentration of DON.
  • High concentrations cause feed refusal and vomiting.

 

source: http://www.mold-help.org/content/view/457/

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